EVConsult’s three-layer model indispensable for public transport decision makers


The energy transition in public transport is clearly visible. Three years ago, there were fewer than ten electric buses in operation in the Netherlands, mainly pilot projects. By the start of 2018, however, this number had grown to more than 200, and this trend is set to continue in the years ahead.

Zero emissions by 2030

The most important driver behind this growth is the Zero-Emission Bus Transport Administrative Agreement, which stipulates that all new buses used for public transport must be zero-emission by 2025. And from 2030 onwards, this will apply to all public transport buses. What’s more, declining costs and improving performance are serving to stimulate the market.

A new task for transport companies, transport authorities and grid operators

The rapid rise of zero-emission bus transport means that when replacing equipment (prematurely or coinciding with new concessions), it is important to determine the best types of zero-emission buses and charging infrastructure and locations to use. This is a new matter for transport companies, transport authorities and grid operators. It would therefore be desirable to opt for joint preparation under the supervision of the public transport (awarding) authority.

The three-layer model

Are you thinking of replacing your conventional buses for electric ones? Use EVConsult’s Three Layer Model. This model supports bus concession operators and public transport authorities alike to decide on the type of e-bus, charger and charging location. This model also helps to make optimal choices when selecting e-buses and charging infrastructure, while taking account of the three layers of importance. Making the integration of electric buses in the current infrastructure more cost-efficient, user friendly and future proof.

1. Transport demand
2. Spatial integration
3. Electricity grid

The demand for transport addresses the primary public transport objective of transporting passengers, translated into timetables and rounds. Spatial integration relates to the option of installing the charging infrastructure at the terminal (stops). And, last but not least, the available capacity and distance from the electricity grid determines the costs and construction time needed for charging infrastructure facilities.


Using this model, EVConsult calculates possible variants of bus types and charging infrastructure configurations on the basis of the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO). Costs are compared across the chain from grid connection to e-bus (see figure).

In addition to cost comparisons, qualitative implications are taken into account, for example if would take unduly long to install a grid connection at a potential charging location.


The three-layer model provides clear insight and a solid basis for public transport authorities to make strategic choices in consultation with transport companies and grid operators. Because the model takes account of increasing numbers of e-buses in its calculations, the purchase of e-buses and charging infrastructure can be properly justified.

The three-layer model produces an overview of the charging locations, the required charging infrastructure and the e-buses in sync with spatial planning and the electricity grid. In the case of replacement requests, a well-considered choice can therefore be made for e-buses.

Applying the three-layer model, EVConsult has already assisted various regions and cities in close cooperation with the transport companies and grid operators.

For more information about the three-layer model, please contact Ruud van Sloten at r.vansloten@evconsult.nl or call +31646247105

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